Oxford University Press, How can noble men and Jain worthies like Ravana eat flesh and drink blood? Therefore, if his Ramayana becomes the primary source for Valmiki, then it stands to reason that Kalidasa came much earlier than Valmiki. His trusty henchman, Hanuman, was at his feet. This part also describes the banishment of Sita, the birth of her sons, their war with Rama, Sita’s descent into the earth, and the appearance of the gods to reunite Rama and Sita. A supremely gifted poet immortalized the story of a famous individual in the form of an epic poem.

Obviously, those who speak in the name of upholding Indian read Hindu culture lack the legacy of that which they are claiming to uphold—respect for diversity, dialogue and interpretation. Also, it’s worth noting left-leaning faculty and students at DU did do a protest in defense of the essay in the curriculum this past week, an account of which can be found here. OUP does not apologise and never has apologised for publishing the essay. Now the Tamil Ramayana of Kampan generates its own offspring, its own special sphere of influence. It so happens that many people in Delhi and the neighbouring states consider the Ramayana to be a Holy Book. So, the text of Ramayana had to be changed in order to be more accessible and intelligible to a wider audience.

See The Hindu’s interview with Romila Thapar on the issue here.

But the question arises: The 16 Dec Massacre in a Peshawar school – statements from human rights groups, media commentary and editorials Fast Track to Troubling Times: Valmiki opens with a frame story about Valmiki himself. Even a fool cannot resist it; he is entranced and caught up in the action.

A.K. Ramanujan: ’Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation’

One hardly need add that the Paumacariya is filled with references to Jain places of pilgrimage, stories about Jain monks, and Jain homilies and legends. In this paper, indebted for its data to numerous previous translators and scholars, I would like to sort out for myself, and I hope for others, how these hundreds of tellings of a story in different cultures, languages, and religious traditions relate to each other: It was an all-night performance, and he just couldn’ t keep awake.


When he was ramabujans taken to the King of Spirits, he kept repeating the name of Rama. For example, the horse was not known to the harappan people.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

Ramanujan, ramanujwns referring to the diversity and apparently contradictory element of unity in the Indian traditions, refers to an Irish joke about whether to classify trousers as singular or plural: But, as soon as he conquers it, he returns the kingdom to ramahanas king and advises the queen to return to her husband. She saw his face reflected in them ninefold and so called him Dasamukha, or the Ten-faced One. Retrieved aak ” https: But ramaayanas end brings home to Hanuman, the ever faithful bhakta of Rama, that there is no one Rama, there are many Ramas, and no single Ramayana but many Ramayanas.

It seeks to demonstrate factually how the story of Rama has undergone numerous variations while being transmitted across different languages, societies, geographical regions, religions, and historical periods.

I consider it essential reading for anyone who wants to know about the complex textual history of the Ramayana. The South-East Asian versions of the Ramayana appear to bring more nuanced readings of all the primary protagonists. If we argue that these were lost due to the vicissitudes of time, then it is not absurd to argue that those evidences that proved the exact opposite of this argument were also lost due to the vicissitudes of time.

Ramayana: An ‘epic’ controversy

In fact, as many scholars have pointed out, in its earliest renderings, the Rama story is found ramaanujans the Buddhist Jatakas, moral tales about the past lives of the Buddha, which narrates the story of the two sons and one daughter of the king of Ayodhya, Dasharatha, who were Rama, Lakshmana and Sita.

Works based on the Ramayana. You can write the whole thing on two sides of an A-4 paper. The only way forward is subsidiarity, more and more subsidiarity, and less and less posturing re. When this happens, the Rama story has become almost a second language of the whole culture area, a shared core of names, characters, incidents, and motifs, with a narrative language in which Text 1 can say one thing and Text 2 something else, even the exact opposite.


Finally, the crucial point that Ramanujan makes is with regard to translation of texts: The monkeys too are not monkeys but a clan of celestials vidyadharas actually related to Ravana and his family through their great grandfathers.

Let me back up and say it differently, in a way that covers more adequately the differences between the texts and their relations to each other, for they are related.

The DU authorities, it is rakanujans, decided on this issue in favour of the dissenting opinion without consulting the larger community, when in fact this item was not even on the agenda.

Three Hundred Ramayanas: Five Examples and Three Thoughts on Translation – Wikipedia

Shakesphere is not the only authentic guy you know. It has been convincingly shown that the eighteenth-century Thai Ramakien owes much to the Tamil epic. This folk narrative, sung by an Untouchable bard, opens with Ravana here called Ravula and his queen Mandodari. It occurs in one tradition of the Jain stories for example, in the Vasudevahimdi and in folk traditions of Kannada and Telugu, as well as in several Southeast Asian Ramayanas. Rama trusted no one more than Laksmana, so he asked Laksmana to stand by the door.

ak ramanujans essay 300 ramayanas

You have poison in your belly. Even as Ravana carries her off, he is opposed by an ancient bird which he slays with his sword.

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