I also owe enormous thanks to Ed Aspinall, who encouraged me to tackle this project in the first place and supported me throughout my candidature. The Keibodan, an auxiliary police force, accepted young men from 20 to 35 Anderson , It is this notion of group identity, and in particular the ways in which Indonesian university students defined themselves and were defined by others as a social group, which is the primary concern in this thesis. Dahulu pemuda harus meruntuhkan sistem lama dan melumpuhkan kekuasaan penjajah, menembak musuh dan membumihanguskan segala-galanya jika musuh dapat menduduki wilayah kita. They conclude that the position of the New Order authorities over wider Indonesian society 39 See also Hidayat Consequently, analysis of the intertextual patterns in texts can provide an insight into the kinds of power relationships which exists between social actors and their texts.
Where this is the case, it has been noted. Discourse, opposition and the politics of student identity 14 Conceptualising discourse and power 15 Text, discourse and social structure 16 Constructing identity in discourse and text 23 Social structure: As Philpott expresses it: The most effective forms of government are those which provide the conditions within which the governed are able to regulate their own behaviour. The bureaucratic character of New Order language also flourished see Anderson , ; see also Bourchier ,
A linguistic analysis of texts can thus provide insights into both the structures of discourse and the larger social 14 Wilson argues that: These keywords identify and provide the link between the five trktura facets of the state: These have been undertaken both by Indonesian and non-Indonesian scholars.
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These terms referred to those youth who acted in the much celebrated key historical moments of the past, as well as the contemporary youth whose 30 … jika pemuda dapat berperan lebih besar dalam gerak pembangunan sekarang, maka sesungguhnya pemuda melanjutkan tugas sejarahnya di masa lampau. He argues that power relations in the New Order state were centred on the competition between the Muslim merchant class, foreign and Chinese business interests, military bureaucrats and a coalition of state bureaucrats, intellectuals and students Robison The most effective forms of government are those which provide the conditions within which the governed are able to regulate their own behaviour.
Indeed, it was only because students were able to work within the parameters set by the state, that they were able to continue to play a role a significant role in social and political life.
In this way, information which is of advantage to the regime, such as economic successes or the reduction of debt, is given explicitly and the sentence structure is often active. Their aims were usually expressed in terms of improving ties between Dutch secondary and vocational school students from the same ethnic group and fostering an appreciation of their traditional cultures and languages see Martha46 and 49; Biro Pemuda32 and 38; Tomasoa25 and The chapter suggests that within the student press, students developed a genuinely oppositional discourse in which their roles, and their relationship to the state, were defined esway terms of conflict, struggle and resistance.
Discourse, opposition and the politics of student identity 14 Conceptualising discourse and power 15 Text, discourse and social structure 16 Constructing identity in discourse and text 23 Social structure: Text is a familiar dalma in linguistics.
Like state universities, private universities vary in terms of the quality of education and the fee structure. This status is celebrated in the prolific literature on pemuda youth and mahasiswa university students which documents their historical and contemporary role in Indonesian politics and society.
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The emphasis on ideologies of dissent is also of value. This does not necessarily mean that critical discourse analysis must employ a standard theory and methodology. She begins by discussing the New Order policy peraj language development. See also Widdowson a, Fairclough and Widdowson on questions of text interpretation.
This growth in student dalm was a result of the expansion of primary and secondary education during the s and s, as students graduating from secondary schools increasingly sought higher education. During the Guided Democracy period similar courses had been run in schools and universities Fischer From the beginning of the New Order, the regime set about redefining the roles and identities of the young generation in accordance with the new political and ideological order which was being put in place.
In The archaeology of knowledgeFoucault acknowledged that linguistic analysis was one method for the analysis of discourse, although discourse analysis could not be reduced to linguistic analysis Fairclough40; Foucault The analysis of interpersonal meaning in the text is thus concerned with power dqlam and the ways these power relationships are expressed in texts.
The student texts comprise influential student newspapers and magazines published on campuses in Yogyakarta, Jakarta and Bandung during the mid to late s and fan s.
Mahasiswa in New Order Indonesia 60 Origins: Exclusion is most often expressed through transitivity structures such as passive clauses where the agent of the action is omitted, or abstract nouns which function as grammatical actors. This contestation is manifested in the contradictory ways in which texts are produced.
There was a considerable element of prestige associated with the status of college or university student, reflected in the use of the Sanskrit prefix maha. The members of the MPR are addressed using conventional phrases. In the lead up to the elections, however, the political parties, recognising the importance of students as a constituency, set about cultivating their support.
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As Barker expresses it: Almost 70 per cent of the population, or over million people, were aged under 34 Visi24 and 8. Social actors may be excluded 23 The analysis of transitivity systems has been used extensively in studies triyura political discourse, including those with a critical discourse analysis approach see for example Trew a, b; Hodge and Kress ; Ilie ; see also see Kress b; Wilson The choices that speakers and writers make along the spoken-written continuum when they create texts may be socially, culturally or politically motivated.
By the end of it was estimated that there were more than half a million Magendaxvi. In its narrowest sense, the concept of ppelajar change referred to the process of attrition taking place within the army, as those who had participated in or experienced the revolution retired or passed away McGregor; citing Jenkins