These values included the unity and territorial integrity of the nation, popular sovereignty, anti-colonialism, Indonesian identity, a focus on the common interest and the interests of the nation and state as well as the values enshrined in the Pancasila Surono , ; see also Suharto , ; Bourchier , ; Emmerson , ; Antlov , The analysis of interpersonal meaning is concerned with describing the patterns of mood, modality, and person in a text. Why were Indonesian students both celebrated and maligned by the New Order? As this study shows, the state employed strategies and techniques which aimed to incorporate students into the state itself by modifying their behaviour in ways which were consistent with its needs and interests. Foucault also emphasised the fact that individuals occupy multiple and often fragmented identities.
As a result, between and the end of an additional 30 state universities, institutes and teachers colleges Institut Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, IKIP were created throughout the archipelago Oey- Gardiner , The literature on opposition to the state has tended to focus on the themes of opposition or the activities of political organisations see for example Aspinall ; Uhlin This strategy was a response to the very real threat of repression that students faced. In addition, a select few of the most promising Indonesian students from the Dutch stream had the opportunity to undertake higher education overseas, mostly in Holland or the Middle East Martha , ; Ingleson , and Moreover, identity is not a static phenomenon, but one which is constantly changing. Critical discourse analyses have tended to focus on the language of the powerful with the result that analysis of resistance to the exercise of power and to the discourses of those in authority has been somewhat neglected.
Vocational schools for veterinarians Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsen- school and agricultural specialists Middelbare Landbouwschool in Bogor which were mahaasiswa amalgamatedand a number of teacher training schools were also created Hardjasoemantri Arie was also an invaluable source of information and contacts.
The largest universities are concentrated in and around the major urban centers. As a result, they were keenly aware of their role as the future elite. It then examines the nature of opposition under the New Order. In New Order speeches and policy documents, mahasiswa almost invariably referred to contemporary university students.
Since the s the student organisations which were associated with the major political parties had been divided along ideological lines. The analysis of interpersonal meaning in the text is thus concerned with power relationships and the ways these power relationships are expressed in texts.
In this view, discourses are constructed from combinations of both prior and contemporary discourses which are in turn derived from the conditions of past and present social structures. Hodge and Mansfield argue that political satire contains both positive and negative mahassiswa.
See also Gastil on imprecise words, euphemisms and loaded words, and on dominant and marginalised or oppositional political lexicaand More practically, the pressures of academic life, and in particular, the threat of unemployment after graduation, often manifests itself in political and social activism Altbach It also provides an insight into the kinds of strategies that these students used to attempt to socialise their fellow students into the roles and identities constructed for them in the student press.
As Fairclough notes, declaratives position the speaker or writer as the provider of information and the listener or reader as the recipient.
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Up to the late s, students and intellectuals were the most active civil society groups. The demonstrations of in which university students, mahasidwa in their role as mahasiswa, had been a central force, had demonstrated to the new regime that a mahasiswa identity which legitimated such demonstrations was potentially destabilising see also Ryter Sukarno defined this spirit in terms of dynamism, adventurousness, a love of hard work and a love of ideals.
This transitory period, in which students enjoy relative freedom from parental and familial control and financial responsibilities, means that they are able to take risks which others can not Altbach3. He also recognises the role of social subjects in the exercise of power: Like their colonial counterparts, the university students of the s mostly came from relatively privileged socio-economic backgrounds Magenda Others have used presidential speeches as a means of analysing more global structures of New Order language use Matheson Dalan ; Eriyanto Breaking free Figure 6.
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After its leaders came into contact with nationalist leaders exiled to the Netherlands in the mid s and early s the organisation was gradually politicised. This does not necessarily mean that critical discourse analysis must employ a standard theory and methodology.
Choosing to represent the world in terms of actions and the people involved in these actions may involve a desire to foreground the agency of a particular actor. pflajar
Even firm advocates of critical discourse analysis have identified the problematic nature of its current methodological fragmentation Toolan99and emphasised the need to standardise the method, preferably using a Hallidayan model Fowler; see also Fowler They conclude that the position of the New Order authorities over wider Indonesian society 39 See also Hidayat It then explores existing work on political discourse and political aspects of language in Indonesia and identifies the need for a greater understanding of the micro-level aspects of opposition and resistance in New Order Indonesia.
There is also the problem of what conclusions can be drawn about the meaning and effect of texts from an analysis of textual features given that meaning-making involves both text production of which the features of a text are a product and text interpretation see Widdowsonand ; Widdowson a, ; Widdowson; for a refutation of this view see Fairclough; see also Fowler Given this relationship, what is the place of text-based analysis in discourse analysis?
These have been undertaken both by Indonesian and non-Indonesian scholars.
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As the oldest and largest universities in Indonesia, Universitas Gadjah Mada and Universitas Indonesia are also the most prestigious. Both these campaigns provided the army with significant financial and political returns and so strengthened its position. As Foucault suggests in The archaeology of knowledge, a text is part of a complex network esasy other texts. From the beginning of the New Order, the regime set about redefining the roles and identities of the young generation in accordance with the new political dalamm ideological order which was being put in place.
An order of discourse describes the relationships between discourses, including specifying which discourses are privileged in which particular fields and how these discourses relate to less privileged alternatives.