Smaller domesticable animals such as dogs, cats, chickens, and guinea pigs may be valuable in various ways to an agricultural society, but will not be adequate in themselves to sustain large-scale agrarian society. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Diamond concludes that, since New Guinea only reached a population of one million much fragmented into micro-populations by the 4 Ibid, Chapter Other advanced cultures developed in areas whose geography was conducive to large, monolithic, isolated empires, without competitors that might have forced the nation to reverse mistaken policies such as China banning the building of ocean-going ships. Biological relatives of the horse, including zebras and onagers proved untameable; and although African elephants can be tamed, it is very difficult to breed them in captivity;   Diamond describes the small number of domesticated species 14 out of “candidates” as an instance of the Anna Karenina principle: Diamond also argues that geography shaped human migration , not simply by making travel difficult particularly by latitude , but by how climates affect where domesticable animals can easily travel and where crops can ideally grow easily due to the sun. The Americas had difficulty adapting crops domesticated at one latitude for use at other latitudes and, in North America, adapting crops from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other.
This led to migrations of people and resources westward into Europe which was more tolerant to intensive agriculture as a result of its rainier climate. Diamond fails on both fronts. The prologue opens with an account of Diamond’s conversation with Yali , a New Guinean politician. Guns, Germs, and Steel focuses on why some populations succeeded. The crucial trap for the development of agriculture is the availability of wild edible plant species suitable for domestication. That consideration tended to cause technology to develop most rapidly on continents with few geographic and ecological barriers to diffusion, either within that continent or on other continents.
Where are you getting that from? First and foremost, Diamond addresses where his knowledge is lacking, as well as his academic background.
Still others, he says, “have been decimated, subjugated, and in some cases even exterminated by European colonialists. Hence, all other things being equal, technology develops fastest in large productive regions with large human populations, many potential inventors, and many competing societies. Is this a historical accident, or geographically predetermined, as Jared Diamond sugges Blog authors are solely responsible for the content of the blogs listed in the directory.
Guns, Germs, and Steel – Wikipedia
Bringing Geography back in. When Europeans made contact with the Americas, European diseases to which Americans had no immunity ravaged the indigenous American population, rather than the other way around the “trade” in diseases was a little more balanced in Africa and southern Asia: A critical assessment of Jared Diamond’s approach to civilizational development.
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Though at the short-term time period — one may not predict the gender ratio of one’s own family nor predict the outcome of individual battles amongst Europeans and Native Americans at certain times.
Basically the idea goes that if a conducive environment 17 http: Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Also important to the transition from hunter-gatherer to city-dwelling agrarian societies was the presence of ‘large’ domesticable animals, raised for meat, work, and long-distance communication.
Firstly, there is the idea that Diamond has about the geographic importance of the ancient Middle East as being not only a cradle for civilizations but consequently a place that gave its inhabitants a big head-start over others.
Book Summary: Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond
In the book, Diamond created a thesis arguing that geography gave certain civilizations and societies a big head-start and enabled them to eventually acquire the means and the technology to conquer or dominate others.
Biological relatives of the horse, including zebras and onagers proved untameable; and although African elephants can be tamed, it is very difficult to breed them in captivity;   Diamond describes the small number of domesticated species 14 out of “candidates” as an instance of the Anna Karenina principle: The combined effect of the increased population densities supported by agriculture, and of close human proximity gune domesticated animals leading to animal diseases infecting humans, resulted in European societies acquiring a much richer collection of dangerous pathogens to which European people had acquired immunity through natural selection see the Black Death gums other epidemics tgesis a longer time than was the case for Native American hunter-gatherers and farmers.
Natural selection forced Eurasians to develop immunity to a wide range of pathogens. An Analysis of the European Social Complex.
An Historical Geography of Europe, p. The American Historical Review.
Societies, Networks, and Transitions: Outside of Eurasia, there were still regions of technological difference and regions of comparative advantage and disadvantage, albeit nothing compared with Eurasia.
It has been argued that hunting and gathering represents an adaptive strategywhich may still be exploited, if necessary, when environmental change causes extreme food stress for agriculturalists.
I aim to show that while geography is important, it is not necessarily the deciding factor as to how powerful, 1 http: It is also a given that competition naturally arises in a balkanized environment. The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Retrieved January 2, Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Retrieved February 16, Firstly, there is the case of the Egyptian civilization which managed to maintain a substantial population up funs fairly recent times despite an overall arid climate.
Human factors and decisions are surprisingly more powerful and compelling throughout history than the constraints of nature. Due to the Anna Karenina principlesurprisingly few ferms are suitable for domestication.
Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond
In andthe author published new English-language editions that included information collected since the previous editions. This led to migrations of tyesis and resources westward into Europe which was more tolerant to intensive agriculture as a result of its rainier climate.
American Indian ways of history.