Types of quantitative research question Dissertations that are based on a quantitative research design attempt to answer at least one quantitative research question. However, at the undergraduate and even master’s level, dissertations rarely involve experimental research designs , but rather quasi-experimental and relationship-based research designs [see the section on Quantitative research designs ]. Where more than two categories are used, these variables become known as nominal variables rather than dichotomous ones. We discuss the two groups of variable, as well as these potential ambiguities, in the sections that follow:. Factors influencing career choices Group: The following examples illustrate this, with the group s in green text and the dependent variable in blue text:

For example, some variables e. You need to do this for two main reasons: If you plan to only create descriptive research questions , you may simply have a number of dependent variables that you need to measure. We could describe factors relating to their behaviour, such as how frequently they used Facebook each week or the reasons why they joined Facebook in the first place e. If you plan to only create descriptive research questions , you may simply have a number of dependent variables that you need to measure. But the goal will be to use the same research design in your dissertation as the one applied in the main journal article. For example, we cannot say that the response, They are OK , is twice as positive as the response, Not very much.

For example, you can use the literature to explain how: How often do male and female British university students upload photos and comment on other users’ photos on Facebook each week? Attitudes towards music piracy Independent variable: Are you trying to test for differences between groups e. Criticisms of the main journal article, whether identified by the authors of the journal article, other scholars, or during your analysis of the main journal article and broader literature, can provide a basis for using the literature to explain and justify the use of new methods or measurement procedures.


Ratio variables Ratio variables are interval variables that meet an additional condition: Freely distributed pirated music 2.

Moderator Analysis with a Dichotomous Moderator using SPSS Statistics

This example also highlights the need to identify the group s you are interested in. Within the section on measurement procedures and measures, look to the in-text citations used and the corresponding references in the reference list.

When deciding whether the dependent variable or group s should be included first or last, and whether the dependent variable should be broken into two parts, the main thing you need to think about is flow: Dichotomous variables can either be fixed or designed For example, some dissertattion e.

Are there any logical or practical reasons to assume that an extraneous variable might become a confounding variable? Usage behaviour on Facebook e. A, B, AB, O, etc. However, there can also be some ambiguities when deciding whether a variable is categorical or continuous.

You can find out more about the different uses of variables, especially in quantitative research designs i. British university students Question: As such, the dependent and independent variables for the study are:.

Attitudes towards music piracy Groups: Overall, whilst the dependent variable s highlight what you are interested in studying dissertatkon. However, if you are predicting the score or a membership of a group i. An important aspect of such re-testing is typically the use of the same research strategy applied in the main journal article.

Research Questions and Hypotheses | Lærd Dissertation

Can an exercise-training programme lead to a reduction in blood sugar levels? Duplicationyou would typically not be expected to make any changes to the research design used in the main journal article when setting the research design for your dissertation.


laerd dissertation variables

In what year did you start university? The following are examples of dichotomous variables.

laerd dissertation variables

Comparative research questions aim to examine the differences between two or varisbles groups on one or more dependent variables although often just a single dependent variable. The answer to this question is YES. Usage behaviour on Facebook e. Some examples of ratio variables are: As the examples above highlight, relationship-based research questions are appropriate to set when we are interested in the relationship, association, trend, or interaction between one or more dependent e.

laerd dissertation variables

Extraneous dissertahion that are not necessarily confounding variables Extraneous variables that could become confounding variables. However, it is also worth noting that whilst this is the main aim of the experiment, the tutor may also be interested to know if the independent variables i.

GOAL A Exploring the relationship between variables Are you trying to determine if there is a relationship between two or more variables, and what this relationship is? We discuss these concepts in the example below: In each of these cases, we have different groups that we are comparing e. Choose your starting phrase Identify and name the dependent variable Identify the group s you are interested in Decide whether the dependent variable or group s should be included first, last or in two parts Include any words that provide greater context to your question Write out the dissertatkon research question FIRST Choose your starting phrase You can start descriptive research questions with any of varianles following phrases:

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