If you are exploring the relationship between variables i. Are you trying to examine whether one variable’s value i. Structure of descriptive research questions There are six steps required to construct a descriptive research question: There is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. What proportion of British male and female university students use the top 5 social networks? The research design you used would also have the same goals as those in the main journal article e. Whilst there are many such extraneous variables, we have given some examples below:

In this section, we show you one of the tables you can use to determine whether body composition is moderating the relationship between physical activity and HDL cholesterol concentration, assuming that no assumptions have been violated. The role of the operational definition is to precisely describe how to measure the characteristics of a construct. I have black hair or blond, brown, red hair, etc. This explains why it looks as though your variables have disappeared from the I ndependent s: Each of these types of quantitative research question is discussed in turn: This is discussed next. Instead, we look at three different types of organisational commitment, which means that we look at three different constructs of organisational commitment:

These purposive sampling techniques include maximum variation samplinghomogeneous sampling, typical case samplingextreme or deviant case samplingdissertatioh population sampling and expert sampling.

What are the differences in usage behaviour on Facebook between British male and female university students? Examples of relationship-based research questions are:. Once you are familiar with the four types of research design i. Each of these types of quantitative research question is discussed in turn: Having identified the variables to include in your research, you will need to structure your research questions in a way that the reader can clearly understand what you are trying to achieve.


Descriptive research questions Comparative research questions Relationship-based research questions.

How many calories are consumed per day by American men and women? How should you structure your quantitative research question? Set out the first words that start the research question Quantitative research questions tend to start with words like “What are””How do””Does””How often”amongst others.

What proportion of British male and female university students use the top 5 social networks? You need to do this for two main reasons:.

Moderator Analysis with a Dichotomous Moderator using SPSS Statistics

Purchased pirated music Groups reflect different categories of the independent variable you are measuring e. By structurewe mean the components of a research question i.

Are males more likely to be smokers than females? Unlike probability sampling, the goal is not to achieve objectivity in the selection of samples, or necessarily attempt to make generalisations i. Male, British university students 2.

In this section, 14 of the main threats vaiables internal validity that you may face in your research are discussed with associated examples. For example, if an experimental study found that students that turn up to seminars in addition to lectures get better marks than those student that only turn up to lectures, we may argue that seminar attendance i.

laerd dissertation variables

If the approach that you are taking towards Route C: There are theoretical and practical reasons for using non-probability diesertation. Quantitative research questions and research hypotheses are designed to accomplish different tasks: In the section, How to structure quantitative research questionswe discuss these three steps in more detail, providing examples along the way.

Non-probability sampling | Lærd Dissertation

Theoretical reasons Non-probability sampling represents a valuable group of sampling techniques that can be used in research that follows qualitativemixed methodsand even quantitative research designs.


Rather than using probabilistic methods i. Are you trying to test for differences between groups e.

laerd dissertation variables

What do I have to think aboutas well as an overview article on types of variableswhich will help to familiarise you with terms such as dependent and independent variableas well as categorical and continuous variables [see the article: After all, the purpose of the dissertation is duplicationwhere you are, in effect, re-testing the study in the main journal article to see if the same or similar findings are found.

Research hypotheses Explain the predictions being made or otherwise by the researcher based on specific hypothesis statements. Is there a relationship between height and basketball performance? What is the difference in jump height between males and females?

laerd dissertation variables

Any variable that you are not intentionally studying in your dissertation is an extraneous variable that could threaten the internal validity of your results [see the article: Are you trying to examine whether one variable’s value i.

It is this independent variable i. Let’s say that the university has roughly 10, students. Choose your starting phrase Identify and name the dependent variable Identify the group s you are interested in Decide whether the dependent variable or group s should be included first, last or in two parts Include any words that provide greater context to your question Write out the descriptive research question FIRST Choose your starting phrase You can start descriptive research questions with any of the following phrases:

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