One method was to thoroughly mix dry, granulated triple superphosphate with the soil. There were not, therefore, any consistent interactions between the P fertilizer treatments and the other experimental factors for P concentrations in lettuce in the spring and experiments, the two in which yields were effected in a similar manner in the two experiments. Pregerminated lettuce seed were sown into, and covered with, this soil. Foliage of adjacent plants at low density never overlapped but foliage did overlap extensively for plants at the high density. A study by Chambers and Holm using P32 to study the site of P uptake from soil by green foxtail Setaria viridis L.

Wilson concluded that both root and shoot competition were important although the former tended to be so more frequently. Lettuce Nutrient Analysis Concentrations of macronutrients in lettuce in the spring , fall and spring studies are given in Tables 3. The overall objective of studies reported here was to assess the competitive interactions under varied P regimes between lettuce and spiny amaranth Amaranthus spinosus L. This was done in such a way that a fertilizer band about 8 cm wide was placed 5 cm below the soil surface, in line with, and centered on, the crop row. With mid- to full-season interference, lettuce yields were reduced more with 4 weeds per 2.

Thiobencarb S-[ 4- chlorophenyl methyl]diethylcarbamothioate is one herbicide that can be used on these soils for weed control in lettuce 2 Dusky et al. Pelleted lettuce seed was sown in groups of three closely spaced seed every 30 cm of row. Falseflax uptake of P, conversely, was greater in mixture than in monoculture.

literature review on amaranthus hybridus

Phosphorus Duration of weed interference Application 6 16 27 35 biomass g plant’ – None 1. Phosphorus application method comprised the main plots.

These data were analyzed as a complete factorial arrangement with the main factors being P rate, density and species. Inadequate soil P predictably results in sub-optimal amaranfhus yields Sanchez et al. There are two basic methods which have received considerable attention Cousens, ; Radosevich, Phosphorus uptake variability is hybriddus to occur between plants of different species Chapin and Bieleski, ; Hoveland et al.


As plant growth progressed and pot weight differences became evident, container weight differences due to differential moisture loss were compensated for by adding deionized water.

Factors for which Plants Compete Of the factors that influence plant growth some are of a consumable nature nutrients, water, CO2, 02 and light while others are conditions, e.

Literature review on amaranthus hybridus – Don’t have time to do homework

Three of the interaction types, competition, amensualism allelopathyy and parasitism are of a amaranths nature. An additional distinction is made that light is available in a fixed amount while water and nutrients, though available in limited amounts, can be manipulated by the grower Glauninger and Holzner, A randomized complete block experimental design with four replications and with a split plot treatment arrangement was used for each experiment.

Experiments in this study were therefore designed so that competition between lettuce and spiny amaranth grown under varied P regimes could be assessed using both replacement series analysis techniques Conolly, ; DeWit and Van Den Bergh, ; Rejmanek et al. These series can be established at each of several levels for the set density component of a series Vleeshouwers et al.

Yields obtained with band and broadcast application were not found to differ. Soil moisture levels can also influence the nature of competition that occurs between plant species. Plants in the family Chenopodiaceae respond so to high nitrate availability. There did not appear to be any meaningful trends for Ca concentration response to P application. Falseflax thus competed more strongly for P than flax, amaranths interspecifically and intraspecifically.

Literature review on amaranthus hybridus

Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Soil used in these studies was of low P status soil test value of using the water extractable P analysis based on EREC soil test procedures Sanchez, and had pH values which ranged from 6 to 6. Phosphorus applied broadcast as an experimental treatment. Litertaure this experiment, application of P and duration of weed interference affected lettuce yields.


These experiments showed that at optimum levels of available soil water soybean was more competitive than the weed. Beds were constructed on 91 cm centers and had a width of 48 cm at literagure top.

Lettuce heads were counted and weighed. By conducting studies at several kn, the effect of plant density on competition, as assessed by the replacement design, can also be evaluated. Seed of lettuce and spiny amaranth collected at the EREC were sown so that an even spacing between seeds was maintained. For example, competition has reportedly been shown to limit crop yield earlier on when moisture availability is the limiting growth factor rather than light.

Phosphorus is applied based on quantitative analysis of soil for water extractable P. While K fertilizer can be applied as needed after the crop is planted, the entire amount of P to be used for a crop is applied before planting. Yields were consistent for the durations of weed interference of 0 through 28 days and appeared to decrease only when amaranth was present through harvest of the crop 36 days after plot establishment.

Instead of being applied to the literatufe study area, fertilizer P was applied as an experimental treatment. The amaranth seedling emergence was very sparse in the fall experiment until two to three weeks after the crop was planted.

literature review on amaranthus hybridus

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