NGOs should be better prepared for food distribution. The rest of the pipe network damaged in the eruption was being restored during the time of our visit with the help of ICRC, with an east-west connecting pipe being laid in the still-hot main lava flow. As graves could not be dug in the lava rock, bodies were picked up by trucks for subsequent mass burial. There were tonnes of stock in a warehouse in the western part of Goma, and this could not initially be accessed from the east because of the city being divided by the two lava flows. The geomorphology of the lake, including its great depth and proximity to an active volcanic centre, underlie its present hazardous, gas-laden state.

This was a self-evacuation in the middle of an eruption, rather than a planned one on the basis of advice from the GVO. As far as Lake Kivu is concerned, the most reasonably foreseeable worst scenario would be for the eruptive fissures to extend into the lake along the same line as the fractures from the Nyiragongo crater to Goma, which opened in January Contact Us – Ask questions and suggest improvements. Humanitarian Icons – Ready-to-use symbols and icons. An important concern in the eruptive events of 17 January and thereafter has been the potential for emissions of carbon dioxide from fissures and from the soil.

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The lava flows lit up the scene after nightfall, and they were accompanied by intense fires of buildings, especially at the lava nyiragingo fronts. An underwater lava eruption near Goma would prompt the evacuation of the city and its environs in the same way as for a lava eruption into the city.

The video from Mt Goma shows the clouds of ash and smoke from burning vegetation around the vents and flows on the volcano being convected into the air during the day, and the progression of both lava flows into the city in the evening and night.

The risk assessment will need to incorporate expert opinion on the health hazards, especially cholera, which remains a serious hazard in a mass movement of the population of Goma in response to a volcanic threat.

Where there is no information: The rest of the pipe network damaged in the eruption was being restored during the time of our visit with the help of ICRC, with an east-west connecting pipe being laid in the still-hot main lava flow. The commercial centre was destroyed by the main lava flow, which also over-ran the runway and put the airport out of action for days after the eruption.


Occupants have to pay to have the pits emptied.

The lava lake level in January was not as high as inand the surface was solidified. The high death rate, which was almost entirely attributable to diarrhoeal disease, was unprecedented for refugee populations up to that time. This is a relatively small risk by any standards and one that many people would take rather than evacuate.

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The studh indicate that most, if not all, the lava drained from the crater lake out through the fissures, even as far as fissures in Goma itself. We interviewed three hospital doctors, one of whom was a foreign surgeon attached to an NGO, who had continued working in Goma Hospital in the days during and after the eruption.

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Concerns about air quality are very common amongst lay people following volcanic eruptions, particularly in those who suffer from asthma and other chronic lung conditions.

The GVO observed new fumarolic activity in the old Shaheru crater and from new cracks in the inner walls of the Nyiragongo crater following the 7 October earthquake. ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are certainly simpler.

The mechanism for the release of lava in the eruption was more clearly a drainage phenomenon, with radial fissuring around the summit crater and a high level of very fluid lava in the lake. A visit to the town of Masisi was made to learn more about the impact of ash falls from the volcanoes on human and animal health.

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There would have been insufficient fuel to boil all the drinking water needed. Some important findings on the vulnerability of the population have emerged which relate to the eruption occurring in a region already affected by a complex humanitarian emergency and these should be considered in emergency planning and preparedness.


The volcano was made notorious by this event, with its future hazard defined by its unique potential for the sudden release of lava of a very fluid type due to its highly alkalic composition. Read the Text Version.

The potential for outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases from drinking contaminated water was therefore present immediately after the eruption, the risk falling rapidly in the first few days as potable water supplies were restored.

The eruption began without warning at In Goma, individual risk is the current criterion of the people and, in the absence of governmental mechanisms to evaluate and act on societal risk, it is almost byiragongo that in a further crisis significant loss of life could occur.

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The evacuation of Goma would therefore also reduce the loss of life expected in a gas release nyirahongo Lake Kivu. Saunders, Housing, Lives and Livelihoods: The water network across the city was broken by both lava flows Fig.

The centre of the outbreak was probably Goma. Problems continued with the system being overloaded and unstable for the power supply to the water pumping stations of REGIDESO, one of the two hospitals and the flour mill, for example. Houses for rent were available, and those who had money rented rooms and space towards the west of the town. The water intake pipe for the Lac Kivu station is only a few metres away from the edge of the lava flow.

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The Rwandans did not African Rift Valley welcome them and gangs threatened the refugees unless they returned home. The aid response As aid responses go, Goma was not badly served.

In the following hours the fracture system and the eruption of lava propagated down slope for 20 km.

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