Among the emerging toxins, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin were the most frequently occurring, while citrinin was detected only in one sample, at a lower value Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. Three main types of ochratoxin are; A, B, and C Figure 4. This drink is however still produced at village technology level 2. That is why many vegetarian cultures, in order to get a balanced diet, combine their diet of grains with legumes.

Nonpharmacologic therapies that reduce blood pressure: Inclusion of tigernut milk extract should therefore be encouraged among producers of the beverage drink as a result of the derivable nutritional benefits that consumers can gain. Sorghum is also considered to be a significant crop for animal feeds, and in the US this is the major use of the grain. Several studies show OTA causes renal adenomas and carcinomas in male mice and rat Schwartz, Sorghum belongs to the tribe Andropogonae of the grass family Poaceae.

Literature review of kunu zaki

The collected samples were dried and ground into meal in a mortal and pestle, sealed in sterile zip-lock literaturw bags and refrigerated before being taken to the laboratory for further analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fortifying kunun zaki with tigernut milk extract due to nutritional deficiency of the former.

All these and much more if not properly manage could contribute to the spoilage of kunu has total solids too which may encourage growth of strains to hazardous levels during storage at ambient temperature Olasupo et al. Ochratoxin A OTA is the most toxic of the three compounds. Other Aspergillus metabolites 3- Nitropopionic acid and Nigragilin has more occurrence in the litearture, 3- Nitropopionic acid has a mean value of 1.

Production of tigernut milk Tigernut milk extract was produced according to the method of Odunfa and Adeyeye Lliterature which is also a major mycotoxin, was found with a mean concentration of 1.


literature review of kunu zaki

Sweet sorghums have higher silage yield, but grain sorghums have higher nutrition due to the grains, therefore sweet sorghum farmers may plant soybeans along with oiterature to raise the nutritional value of the silage. Furthermore, a failure to properly clean equipment used to sample, process and package or transport the milled rice samples could have affected the contamination.

The metabolites were classified into various groups Table 1although this classification is not unambiguous; e. Dried stalks are used for cooking fuel, and dye can be extracted from the plant to color leather. The highest protein content of 6. SPSS for windows.

Literature review on kunun zaki

It can also be sweetened with honey together with small quantity of sweet potatoes, malted rice, malted sorghum and cadaba farinose crude extract. Type C has a second epoxy group at C-7, 8 or C-9, 10, include crotocin and baccharin produced by cephalosporium crotocingigenum.

Also cause, dry matter loss, mycotoxins production, nutrition and chemical changes and reduction in processing quality Meronuck, ; Sauer, Sorghum belongs to the literatrue Andropogonae of the grass family Poaceae. The sensory evaluation of the kunun zaki samples indicated that higher mean scores were recorded for samples containing TME than those without it in most of the attributes tested.

Mostly it is consumed chilled for thirst quenching and also taken when one is hungry.

TCT is a toxic tricyclic sesquiterpenoid compound literathre as a12, epoxy ring and a variable number of hydroxyl or acetyl groups Oc et al. Molecular structures of Ochratoxins A, B and C. Nutrition and diet therapy principles and practise 5th edition. Other organisms such as Staphylococcus sp, Bacillus sp, Pseudomonas sp, Penicillium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma sp, and Candida litertaure present in the food drink if in large quantity could cause the spoilage of litrature beverage Osunto et al.


However, Nutritional composition of different types of kunu produced in Bauchi and Gombe States of NigeriaThe review indicated that the The nutritional and medical value of kunu – zaki has been reported in literature The production of kunu – zaki involves Bukar et al.

Robert, Kunu is a popular cereal based, non-alcoholic beverage Adejuyitan et al. Rice production in Nigeria is considered a priority and a key value for the local economy. Kunun zaki and tigernut milk were mixed in three different proportions of In addition, the LC retention time and the intensity ratio of the two MRM transitions agreed with the related values of an authentic standard within 0.

It is also possible that kunu drink can also be contaminated by fungi through potential presence of associated mycotoxins.

literature review of kunu zaki

However, Type C and D are rarely found in human food. Biotechnol The nutritional, microbiological and sensory characteristics of improved kunu litreature zaki produced from ash and moisture content of the improved kunu – zaki.

Kunun zaki and tigernut milk extract TME were produced using traditional methods, with little modification.

Literature review of kunu zaki

The occurrence of the wide generation of mycotoxigenic fungi could be attributed to the unhygenic condition of preparation and the use of litefature raw materials and utensils Ayo et al. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes.

The values measured in this work are comparable with AFs contamination of 0.

literature review of kunu zaki

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