It is considered being the primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in mammals Barkai- Golan and Paster, Appropriate dilutions were made and 0. It is also possible that kunu drink can also be contaminated by fungi through potential presence of associated mycotoxins. Nigeria is a temperate climatic region where hot sunny weather often changes into colder thundery weather during the harvest July—August period; these climatic variances support the growth of several kinds of microscopic fungi. Dried stalks are used for cooking fuel, and dye can be extracted from the plant to color leather. The evidence of the co-occurrence of different metabolites from different origin, with a wide variety of concentration, is relevant and complex, especially if we consider the absence of detailed studies on the effects of the non-regulated metabolites on human health. Among the Alternaria metabolites, Macrosporin was present in two of the samples, with a maximum value of 3.
The complete research work will cost you N and we will send the material to you within 24hours after confirming your payment. The storage fungi do not invade grains before harvest Christensen and Kaufmann, The fermentation process may last for hours Gaffa and Ayo, after which it is kept for acidification to develop. The andrastins are protein farnesyltransferase inhibitors and are capable of inhibiting the efflux of anticancer drugs from multidrug-resistant cancer cells Uchida et al. In somedeveloping nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. Identification of the microbial isolates: They are regarded as after meal drinks or refreshing drinks during the dry season in rural and urban centres.
Log In Sign Up. Kunzig, Robert April References: Gert, but grains are always harvested during the rainy season, a best period for yeast and mould which favors contamination by fungi and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.
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However, in cooler areas corn is probably a better option for production, based on yield. DON exposure has been linked to incidences of acute gastrointestinal diseases, kidney problems and immunosuppressive in animals Pestka et al.
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The collected samples were dried uknun ground into meal in literaturw mortal and pestle, sealed in sterile zip-lock plastic zak and refrigerated before being taken to the laboratory for further analysis. Murray et al, The microbiology of Kunu zaki cereal beverage from Northern Nigeria during the fermentation production process. Isolation of microbes associated with Kunu zaki drinks: In addition, OTA also occurs in wheat, barley, rye, corn, soy, peanuts, rice, oats, and cassava flour Zain, ; CAST, and in several food of animal origins Peraica et al.
BEN is a fatal chronic kidney disease affecting rural populations, in Romania, Bulgaria, and the former Yugoslavia Schwartz, Fungal colonies were isolated using a sterile pin point inoculation on the agar and incubated at ambient temperature for 3 days.
It can also be taken hot with bean cakes and milk as desired by the consumer. Zearalenone which is also a major mycotoxin, was found with a mean concentration of litdrature.
The micro flora of the finished product depends on the processing and storage conditions, this has lead to the inability to produce and store fresh kunu. Subscribe to this RSS feed. Retrieved 25 June Grain sorghum is also used for silage, but it is not as commonly used as the sweet sorghum for this purpose.
Literature review on kunun zaki
Ranging from sudden death to deleterious effects upon the central nervous, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma, effects on the cardiovascular, reproductive, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems to mention few Burger et al. The abbreviations B and G show Blue and Green litegature, while 1 and 2 represents the in igration distance, 1 higher and 2 lower of the compounds as seen on a thin-layer chromatographic plate under ultraviolet light Klich, The evidence of the co-occurrence of different metabolites from different origin, with a wide variety of concentration, is relevant and complex, especially if we consider the absence of detailed studies on the effects of the non-regulated metabolites on human health.
Mycotoxins may also be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic, and immune- toxic, oestrogenic, effects dermatitis and nephrogenic to a lot of organisms Burger et al. Kunu is a cereal-based beverage in Nigeria. The processed Kunu is usually packed for sale either in plastic bottles or in large containers and distributed under ambient temperature or cooled in a refrigerator where available.
Literature review of kunu zaki
It is produced by more than 50 fungal species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. Species such as ginger, black pepper, garlic, red pepper and clover are commonly added as flavor and taste improver. The World’s Healthiest Foods. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins can result in serious health affect both acute and chronic. Kunzig, Robert April SORGHUM Sorghum is a genus with many species and subspecies, and there are several types of sorghum, including grain sorghums, grass sorghums for pasture and haysweet sorghums for syrupsand Broomcorn.
There are often consumed by children, people, whose religion restricts alcohol and anyone wishing to enjoy flavor drinks without alcohol, It is mostly consumed in the north for its thirst quenching properties Elmahmond et al.
Kunu is a cereal-based beverage in Nigeria. It is also known to reduce the risks associated with diabetes. Thus, a total of four samples were analysed. Sorghum fibers are used in wallboard, fences, biodegradable packaging materials, and solvents.